Is the New Testament hope consistent with what was promised in the Old Testament? Did Jesus and his disciples refer to the Kingdom? Abraham, Isaac and Jacob? Promises? A Paradise Earth? Resurrection? An Inheritance? Or did they preach something new and different?
What did Jesus preach?
Beginning in the Gospel of Matthew, we find that Jesus preaches extensively about “the kingdom of heaven”. In Mark, Luke and John, Jesus and his disciples likewise preach “the gospel of the kingdom of God.” In their preaching campaigns they encourage people to repent and prepare, for the kingdom is near, and they discuss who will enter the kingdom. (Matthew 4:17, 18:3; Mark 1:14-15; 16:15-16; Luke 4:43; 16:16)
Abraham, Isaac and Jacob
Jesus speaks about many coming to sit down with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven. (Matthew 8:11)
The Angel Gabriel reminded Mary of the promises made to David, saying, “He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. And the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David, and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end.” (Luke 1:31-33 ESV)
On the cross, Jesus promised the thief beside him, “you will be with me in paradise.” (Luke 23:43) The Greek word for ‘paradise’ means ‘a park, an Eden’. Jesus spoke of the ‘regeneration’ when his disciples would judge the 12 tribes of Israel. (Matthew 19:28) He also cautions against swearing by the city Jerusalem, “for it is the city of the great King.” (Matthew 5:35) In John 14:2-3, Jesus promises his disciples that, “in my Father’s house are many rooms. If it were not so, would I have told you that I go to prepare a place for you? And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and will take you to myself, that where I am you may be also.” Some take this as a promise that paradise will be in actual heaven, but notice Jesus says, “I will come again and will take you to myself.” Does this refer to coming to earth to reign forever? or coming to earth and returning to heaven with the faithful? This is a topic for another blog.
Parables about the Kingdom
Jesus also tells parables beginning with the words “the kingdom of heaven is like…” involving good seed, leaven, treasure, fish, talents, a wedding feast, foolish and wise virgins, and an absent bridegroom and master who will return. (Matthew 13:24, 31, 33, 44, 45; 18:23; 22:2; 25:1, 14)
His Death and Resurrection
An explanation of Jesus’ death, resurrection and glorification was given but not fully understood until after Jesus is risen. (Luke 18:33; John 12:31-35) Then Jesus tells two of his followers, “…These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you, that everything written about me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled.”… he opened their minds to understand the Scriptures, and said to them, “Thus it is written, that the Christ should suffer and on the third day rise from the dead, and that repentance for the forgiveness of sins should be proclaimed in his name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem.” (Luke 24:25-26 and 44-48)
Restoration of the Kingdom to Israel?
It is also interesting to note that during the 40 days before Jesus ascended to heaven, he spoke to his disciples about “the kingdom of God.” (Acts 1:3) The disciples became so excited that they asked Jesus, “Lord, will you at this time restore the kingdom to Israel?” (Acts 1:6) Jesus didn’t rebuke them for thinking the kingdom would be restored to Israel, but only cautioned that the timing of this event was known only to his Father. Just as we have seen from many Old Testament prophecies, the Kingdom of God is linked in a special way to the land of Israel, even though the kingdom will eventually include the whole earth. (Dan.2:44)
What did the Apostles Preach in Acts?
After Jesus ascended to heaven in the record of Acts, the angels promised the disciples, “This Jesus, who was taken up from you into heaven, will come in the same way as you saw him go into heaven.”(Acts 1:11) Jesus’ disciples went forward with the full Gospel message, and Holy Spirit gifts, preaching, “the things concerning the kingdom of God, and the name of Jesus Christ.” (Acts 8:12). For a summary list of the Gospel message as taught in Acts, click here – The Gospel in Acts
The message preached in Acts includes a coming Kingdom, the Name of Jesus, repentance, belief, baptism, and forgiveness of sins. (Acts 2:37-41; 8:37; 16:30-33) It was what the Apostle Paul taught, “from morning till evening he expounded to them, testifying to the kingdom of God and trying to convince them about Jesus both from the Law of Moses and from the Prophets.” (Acts 28:23)
Forgiveness of Sins and The Name of Jesus
Repentance was commanded in the Gospel accounts, but forgiveness of sins is a new emphasis in Acts, now that Jesus has given his life for all of mankind. (Acts 2:23,37; 3:13-19; 5:30-31; 7:52-53; 13:38-39; 17:30-32; 26:18-20)
The Name of Jesus Christ is also a new emphasis, “for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.” (Acts 4:12)
Just like in Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, the need to prepare for a coming kingdom is stressed, including the resurrection and judgement, and the elevation of Jesus to be the Prince and Saviour. (Acts 2:16-20; 3:20-21; Acts 1:11; 3:20-21; 10: 42; Acts 17:30-31; 24:24-25; Acts 3:13; 4:11, 5:30-21)
Old Testament Hope
Tying in with the Old Testament hope of the promises, reference is made to the “Hope of Israel”, the promises to Abraham and an ‘inheritance’. (Acts 2:39; 3:25-26; 7:1-5; 13:22-23; 26:6-8; 28:20; Acts 20:32; 26:18) Paul says, “it is because of the hope of Israel that I am wearing this chain.” (Acts 28:20)
Old Testament Proof
Many times in Acts, the Old Testament is referred to as proof that Jesus Christ fulfilled the prophecies of a suffering Messiah, who had to die and be raised to life. (Acts 2:24-33; 32-37; 8:26-35; 13:27-30, 32-37; 17:2-3; 31-32; 26:22-23; 18:28) The essence of the Gospel message is not new – it is the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies!
Emphasis on Resurrection
Throughout Acts, the resurrection of Jesus from the dead is a crucial aspect of the Gospel message. The Jews and Gentiles could easily believe Jesus had been crucified… but what good was a dead Messiah? Was he really alive again? By demonstrating the healing power of the Name of Jesus, and referring to relevant Old Testament prophecy, the disciples endeavoured to prove that the Messiah was indeed alive again, actively involved on earth, and seated in heaven on the right hand of God.
As you can see from this consideration, the message of both Testaments are perfectly consistent. The New Testament adds details and emphasis but doesn’t change the essential hope held by those in the Old. Paul says, “I stand here testifying both to small and great, saying nothing but what the prophets and Moses said would come to pass: that the Christ must suffer and that, by being the first to rise from the dead, he would proclaim light both to our people and to the Gentiles.” (Acts 26:22-23)
The First to Rise From the Dead?
It’s intriguing to consider that Jesus was the ‘FIRST to rise from the dead’. Other human beings were miraculously resurrected in the Old and New Testaments – what was special about Jesus’ resurrection? In what way is he considered the ‘first’? Will others follow? In our next few blogs we will delve into the subject of resurrection, looking first – at THE FIRST to rise from the dead!